Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 24°N - 9°S, 76°E - 121°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-Pacific: Indian Ocean (eastern coasts of India north to Calcutta), Indonesia (Jakarta, Java; also Kalimantan at Kotabaru, Takisung on southeastern coast and at Aluhaluh on Barito River). Records from the Arabian Sea and Thailand (Ref. 1632) need confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 38 - 46. Body moderately slender, belly with usually 19 to 21 - 8, total 27 to 29 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting. Dorsal fin origin at about midpoint of body; anal fin origin under hind part of dorsal fin base. Vertical striae on scales not continuous, but with a distinct gap across center of scale. Swim bladder with two tubes passing back in the muscles on either side of haemal spines.
Occurs in coastal waters, but also enters rivers and tolerates water of low salinity. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans and fishes; also amphipods.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.7 - 29.3, mean 28.8 (based on 590 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00418 - 0.02084), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.36 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .