Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888). Tropical
Western Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9. Greenish brown dorsally; flanks silvery; abdomen off white (Ref. 9812). Gold spots on dorsal and ventral parts of iris (Ref. 9812). Second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins with dusky margins and second dorsal speckled brown (Ref. 9812). Pectoral fin with purplish spot dorsally at origin (Ref. 9812).
Form schools in coastal waters, estuaries, and bays; young may enter freshwater. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Taken as bycatch; used as baitfish for crabs and snappers.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J. and H. Senou, 1997. Order Mugiliformes. Mugilidae. Mullets. p. 2069-2108. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9812)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.3, mean 27.4 (based on 264 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00543 - 0.02429), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .