Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 300 - 500 m (Ref. 9824). Deep-water
Western Pacific: southern Japan to the South China Sea and Taiwan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9824)
soft rays: 90 - 101. Body elongate, its depth 2.8 to 3.3 times in SL., and head length 4.9 to 5.7 times in SL. Eyes separated by a bony ridge. Mouth small, about equal to eye diameter. Both jaws on ocular side with teeth.. First 2 dorsal fin rays not clearly separated from other rays.
Inhabits sand and mud bottoms. Marketed salt-dried.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A. and K. Amaoka, 2001. Bothidae. Lefteye flounders. p. 3799-3841. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9824)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.7 - 16.2, mean 10.2 (based on 106 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00452 - 0.02424), b=3.00 (2.81 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .