Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 27 - 49 m (Ref. 58489). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93092); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 21 years (Ref. 47622)
Inhabits shallow waters, generally at depth of less than 50 m. Juveniles gather in sheltered inshore waters, such as estuarine areas, shallow mudflats and sandflats, where they remain for up to two years (Ref. 9072).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.2 - 18.2, mean 16.6 (based on 11 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00757 - 0.03809), b=2.98 (2.78 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .