Myliobatis freminvillei  Lesueur, 1824

Bullnose eagle ray
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Myliobatis freminvillei   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 57911), usually 1 - 10 m.   Subtropical; 43°N - 42°S, 97°W - 33°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: continental waters from Cape Cod to southeastern Florida (?) in the USA; also southern Brazil to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Reported (but not known for certain) from Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Caribbean islands, and northern South America. Often confused with Myliobatis goodei (Ref. 3173).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 60 - 70 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); common length : 70.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Disk broad with long sharply pointed wings and projecting snout. Tail very long, Few middorsal spines on disk in adults (Ref. 7251). Greyish, reddish chocolate or dusky brown above. Lower surface either pure white or whitish. Teeth green (Ref. 6902).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found frequently in coastal waters to 10 m depth, mainly in shallow estuaries. Capable of traveling long distances, occasionally leaps out of the water. Swims in midwater. Cruises slowly over the bottom, rooting out bivalves with its beak and wings when feeding (Ref. 7251). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.2 - 28.1, mean 24.2 (based on 594 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00117 - 0.01240), b=3.08 (2.82 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.