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Holocentrus rufus  (Walbaum, 1792)

Longspine squirrelfish
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Image of Holocentrus rufus (Longspine squirrelfish)
Holocentrus rufus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beryciformes (Sawbellies) > Holocentridae (Squirrelfishes, soldierfishes) > Holocentrinae
Etymology: Holocentrus: Greek, holos = full + Greek, kentron = sting (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 32 m (Ref. 3724).   Tropical; 36°N - 28°S, 98°W - 31°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Bermuda and southern Florida, USA to northern South America and Brazil; throughout the West Indies (Ref. 3724). Antilles, northwestern Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan to Colombia (Ref. 26938).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 13.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 4; Anal soft rays: 9 - 11. Conspicuous white spot behind tip of each dorsal spine (Ref. 26938). Body slender. Upper jaw extending posteriorly to middle of pupil (Ref. 37108). Body bright red or red striped, sometimes blotched (Ref. 7251). Similar in color to H. ascensionis, but each interspinous membrane of dorsal fin with a white spot near margin (Ref. 13442).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Nocturnal (Ref. 37108), inhabits clear reefs (Ref. 5217). Found near mouths of caves and holes (Ref. 26938); at night they usually move to sandy areas and grass beds to feed on crabs, shrimps, gastropods and brittle stars (Ref. 3724). Marketed fresh but not popular as a food fish (Ref. 5217).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.9 - 28.1, mean 27.3 (based on 817 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00706 - 0.01957), b=2.89 (2.74 - 3.04), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.