Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Stemonosudis: Greek, stemon, -onos = warp, weft + Latin, sudis = esox, fish of the Rhine, cited by Plinius 9.15; it also means "stake" (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 18 - 330 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 2°N - 49°S, 19°E - 179°E
Indo-Pacific: Agulhas Current off South Africa, Indonesia (Ref. 5978), Australia (Ref. 7300), and New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4056)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Epipelagic to mesopelagic (Ref. 4056, 58302). Juveniles are pale and transparent when fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Post, A., 1986. Paralepididae. p. 274-278. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4056)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.9 - 27.7, mean 23.3 (based on 528 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00121 - 0.00866), b=3.08 (2.85 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .