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Pseudotolithus epipercus  (Bleeker, 1863)

Guinea croaker
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Pseudotolithus epipercus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pseudotolithus epipercus (Guinea croaker)
Pseudotolithus epipercus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 160 m (Ref. 3593).   Tropical; 12°N - 17°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Guinea-Bissau (Ref. 26999) to southern Angola (Ref. 3593, 81656). Possibly also occurring more to the north (Ref. 81656).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 35-39; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: moderately sized species with an elongate and laterally compressed body; dorsal with 9 (10?) spines in 1st part, second part with 1 spine and 35-39 soft fin rays; second anal spine clearly shorter than first anal fin soft ray, i.e. about half its length, and robust; pectoral fins long, 23.3-27.3% SL; caudal fin S-shaped; mouth inferior almost horizontal; maxilla extending to posterior half of eye; 7-9/1/4-7 (total 13-18) gill rakers on 1st gill arch; lower part of 1st gill arch with 2-6 reduced additional gill rakers, upper part with 0-2 reduced additional ones; gill rakers moderately long and fine, but shorter than the gill filament at angle between lower and upper part of gill arch; preopercular edge feebly denticulated but never with spines; eyes rather small, 4.6-5.4 times in HL, but this character is difficult to use for identification because of allometry (Ref. 81656). Coloration: generally very dark, but occasionally pale silver often with faint dark brown oblique lines on sides; ventral side of head and belly yellowish; all fins greyish to very dark brown, black (Ref. 81656).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coastal waters from the shore to about 70 m over mud bottom, but moves to deeper water. Also found in estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 3593, 81656). Mainly feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 81656).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 19.2 - 27.9, mean 26 (based on 102 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00254 - 0.01136), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.