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Larvae Information Summary for  Mugil cephalus
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Main Ref: Sanzo, L. 1936
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 3.5 2.2 2.5 226
Preanal L. % TL     58.6  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northwestern Pacific (Japan)
Yolk-sac ovoid   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk unsegmented Oil globules one oil globuleposteriorventralpigmented
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Newly hatched larvae remained suspended in the water column in an inclined position with the ventral side oriented towards the surface. When in motion, it jerked, corrected its position, darted rapidly upward then sank to its resting position. Unpigmented eyes, scattered melanophores, and absence of fin buds or mouth parts. The larva has five or six pairs of cupulae on the body side from eye to tail, and several pairs on the front of the head (Ref. 79496).
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature none
Shape of gut elongated
Gas bladder   early pigmented late pigmented
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Rows on tail dorsal + lateral + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal  
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
At the early larval stages the urostyle region is sometimes pigmented. At 4.0 mm, 7 caudal rays present; dorsal rays evident. At 6.7 mm, spines of 1st dorsal and rays of 2nd dorsal can be easily counted. At 5.4 mm, full complement of principal caudal rays and anal rays present. At 9.7 mm, secondary caudal rays present. At 35-45 mm SL, formation of 3rd anal spine and recognized as end of larval period. The lower jaw region is characterised by an acute angle of the dentary symphysis and lightly pigmented ventro-opercular and gular regions of the head (Ref. 74869). Feeding begins three to five days after hatching (Ref. 79496).
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres 26 24 25 226
Preanal number of myomeres 14 11 12 226
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae  
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Papasissi,Christine - 29.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 16.10.08
Checked by: Giovanardi,Otello - 18.02.91
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