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Larvae Information Summary for  Solea solea
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Main Ref: Russell, F.S. 1976
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 3.75 2.5 3.1 69
Preanal L. % TL 47.5 34.8 41.1  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northeastern Atlantic: Flanders coast, near the Pays de Caux, central English Channel
Yolk-sac spherical   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk segmented Oil globules more than one oil globule
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Primordial fin with a hood-like projection over the head and with large stellate chromatophores. No chromatophores at extremecaudal end.
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral short and/or deep dorsal compressed
Striking feature none
Shape of gut spherical or gut loop
Gas bladder   early invisible late  
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail dorsal + ventral row
Other melanophores on tail tail completely covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early pigmented late pigmented
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal  
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
Stellate melanophores at the early postlarva. At 6-7 mm most of the interspinous rays are formed and the dorsal and ventral fin rays appear. The urochord is turning up and the small swimbladder is apparent. Head shape typical of Soleidae , i.e. with upper profile convex and posteriorly not clearly distinct from the visceral sac.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of vertebrae 40 37 38 65
Preanal number of vertebrae 10 8 9 65
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod 5   Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Papasissi,Christine - 19.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 21.11.12
Checked by: Giovanardi,Otello - 15.02.91
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