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Larvae Information Summary for  Cynoscion regalis
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Main Ref: Scotton, L.N., R.E. Smith, N.S. Smith, K.S. Price and D.P. de Sylva 1973
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 1.99 1.49 1.75 13501
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development in close association with substrate
Larval area Delaware Bay
Yolk-sac     pigmented Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules one oil globuleposteriorventralpigmented
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Eggs hatch after 40 hours (Ref. 54461). At 1.8 mm, body is elongated and slender; large eye covering most of the side; group of yellow chromatophores present behind the eye; greatest depth of body is 4.0-4.5 in NL; ventral series of melanophores present; yolk-sac absorbed at 1.8 mm (though yolk-sac was present on a 2.2 mm specimen from Chesapeake Bay).
Post larvae
Striking feature lower jaw strongly projecting
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal  
Striking feature lower jaw strongly projecting
Shape of gut triangular
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early   late  
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail lateral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Urostyle region   early unpigmented late unpigmented
Peritoneum with row of melanophores
Pectorals normal without melanophores
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) without melanophores
At 3.0 mm TL, body depth has increased; ventral series of melanophores more pronounced. At 4.6 mm TL, caudal rays present and dorsal and anal fin rays are slightly differentiated; most melanophores have disappeared except for pigment spots at the base of the anal and on gut (not found in C. nebulosus and C. nothus). At 8.2 mm TL, anal fin rays and soft dorsal rays are present. At 10.5 mm TL, nearly the full complement of dorsal fin elements is present; some lateral pigment; the young assume demersal existence. At 17 mm TL, there are four vertical bands or saddles of chromatophores; anal pigment spot is gone. Body depth increases in proportion to length from hatching until about 17 mm TL, then body becomes more slender.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod 1.8 40811 Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 06.12.01
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 09.06.05
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