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Larvae Information Summary for  Xiphias gladius
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Main Ref: Bertolini, F., U. D'Ancona, E. Padoa Montalenti, S. Ranzi, L. Sanzo, A. Sparta, E. Tortonese and M. Vialli 1956
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm)     4.2  
Preanal L. % TL     61.3  
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Northeastern Atlantic (Italy); Northwestern Pacific (Japan)
Yolk-sac elongated   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules one oil globuleposteriorventralpigmented
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Primordial fin with many chromatophores. Melanophores on the trunk in correspondence with the myoseptes. 24 segments.
Post larvae
Striking feature teeth clearly visible
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature teeth clearly visible
Shape of gut elongated
Gas bladder   early   late  
Spinal armature   early several different spines late several different spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail tail completely covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early pigmented late pigmented
Peritoneum covered with melanophores
Pectorals normal  
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent)  
Jaws very elongated. Supraorbital and preopercular spines. One spine also present near the otocystic region.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres     27 65
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae    Ref. 
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod 5   Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Papasissi,Christine - 29.10.90
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 08.04.03
Checked by: Giovanardi,Otello - 19.02.91
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