|Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
|Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to northern Mexico; absent in southern Florida.|
|Found usually over sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal waters to about 60 m depth. Occurs in nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries during summer and fall. Juveniles often stay in the estuarine waters throughout the year. Feeds mainly on worms, small crustaceans and organic detritus. A small specimen of this species was caught in Tokyo Bay, Japan, probably brought in with the ballast water of a ship (Ref. 10325).|
Diagnostic characters: presence of 12 anal rays, truncate caudal fin, relative lack of pigmentation (Ref. 1184).
At 1.5 mm, yolk-sac completely absorbed; body depth tapers toward tail; dark covering (peritoneum) above air bladder.
At 2.8 mm, mouth oblique to vertical; anterior portion of body deep; prominent hump over eyes and another at nape.
At 3.6 mm, principal caudal ray rudiments appear on ventral side of tail; humps on head are mostly gone.
At 6.0 mm, caudal fin well formed; gut protrudes ventrally.
At 7.0 mm, anal rays beginning to appear; dorsal fin rays less developed; gut no longer projects.
At 10.0 mm, soft dorsal and anal fins show full complements of rays, spinous dorsal just beginning to appear; posterior margin of caudal fin is straight.
At 15.0 mm, most spines of 1st dorsal are developed; black peritoneum no longer visible; young fish still more slender than adult.. See also LARVAE table.
|subtropical; 43°N - 19°N|
Scotton, L.N., R.E. Smith, N.S. Smith, K.S. Price and D.P. de Sylva. 1973. (Ref. 39467)
Common names |
Diet composition larvae |
FAO areas |
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