Monocentris japonica (Houttuyn, 1782)
Pineconefish
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Monocentridae (Pinecone fishes)
Max. size:  17 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 1 - 250 m
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 6620) and Mauritius (Ref. 9710) to southern Japan (Ref. 559), southwest Sumatra to Bali Strait, Timor Sea in Indonesia, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Darwin to Northwest Cape, Australia and from New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 5-6; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-12; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 9-11. Body except for caudal peduncle armored with huge, immovable scales. Lateral line scales present but without opening. Dorsal fin spines large, without membrane. Pelvic fin spine large, with locking mechanism. Anal fin without spine. Body yellow, scales outlined in black; lower jaw black. There is a pair of light organs each side of chin.
Biology:  Found in the sublittoral zone (Ref. 11230), under ledges and caves of rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Forms schools (Ref. 6620). Adults are found between 20 and 200 m depth, juveniles occasionally in shallower water (Ref. 9650). Regularly displayed in public aquaria.
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   
 

Entered by: Sa-a, Pascualita - 05.08.93
Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 19.03.15
Checked by: Paxton, John - 05.10.95

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