||Common in cold waters; usually at temperatures of 6-15°C (Ref. 5951); inhabits rocky regions (Ref. 9137). A carnivore (Ref. 9137) and opportunist feeder (Ref. 43115). Feeds on fishes (mackerel, sand lance, silver hake, white hake, haddock, pollock, Atlantic salmon, menhaden, winter flounder and longhorn sculpin), cephalopods (e.g. squids), amphipods, crabs, shrimps, molluscs, ctenophores, echinoderms (e.g. sea cucumber), polychaete worms, sea anemones, jellyfish, and red, green and brown algae; herring, capelin and cod found to be important foods (Ref. 5951, 28070). Smaller individuals (<60cm TL) show a preference for crustaceans, bony fish are the major prey item in larger specimens (Ref. 28070). Newly born are prone to predaceous bony fishes and sharks, while juveniles and adults may fall prey to swordfish and grey seals (Ref. 5951). Parasites of the species include: 1 protozoan, 2 monogeneans, 5 trematodes, 4 cestodes, 5 nematodes, 1 hirudineid and 1 copepod (Ref. 5951).