||Cold tolerant (Ref. 61), occuring at temperatures ranging from 8°-30°C, with small size fish less tolerant to low temperatures than larger specimens (Ref. 2). Tolerates fairly brackish conditions (Ref. 3, 61, 2001, 6465, 54362), with small specimens less tolerant than larger ones (Ref. 96, 54403, 54459) and ontogenetic changes in salinity tolerance related to body size rather than to chronological age (Ref. 54403, 54459). Forms schools; is sometimes territorial; inhabits warm ponds and impoundments as well as lakes and streams (Ref. 5723, 11028), in open water as well as among stones and vegetation (Ref. 11028). Omnivorous (Ref. 61, 52307), but with a tendency towards a vegetarian diet (Ref. 52307). Feeds on phytoplankton and small quantities of zooplankton (Ref. 3, 61, 6465, 52307). Young fish have a more varied diet which includes large quantities of copepods and cladocerans (Ref. 2, 61, 6465), but they also take pieces of small invertebrates (Ref. 52307). Particulate feeder during larval and juvenile stages, filter feeder when adult (Ref. 46977). Ovophilic, agamous (Ref. 52307), maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 364, 52307). Reproduces in both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 61, 5723).