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Balistes capriscus  Gmelin, 1789

Grey triggerfish
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Image of Balistes capriscus (Grey triggerfish)
Balistes capriscus
Picture by Patzner, R.


Portugal country information

Common names: Cangulo, Cangulo-cinzento, Gray triggerfish
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: occasional (usually not seen) | Ref: Veiga, P., J. Ribeiro, J.M.S. Gonçalves and K. Erzini, 2010
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Recorded from the south and southwest coast (Ref. 85184).
National Checklist: Portugal
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Veiga, P., J. Ribeiro, J.M.S. Gonçalves and K. Erzini, 2010
National Database: Portuguese Freshwater Fishes

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae (Triggerfishes)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7348); common length : 44.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47377); max. published weight: 6.2 kg (Ref. 40637)

Length at first maturity
Lm 16.3, range 13 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 7348), usually 0 - 55 m (Ref. 55172)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 58°N - 37°S, 98°W - 36°E

Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean to Moçamedes, Angola. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Argentina (Ref. 7251).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 3; Dorsal soft rays (total): 26-29; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 23 - 26. Tall, with a small mouth and plate like scales (Ref. 35388). Three faint irregular broad dark bars on body; a narrow pale transverse band on chin; small light blue spots on upper half of body and median fins, and irregular short lines ventrally (Ref. 13442).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits bays, harbors, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). May drift with young at surface among Sargassum (Ref. 9710). Usually solitary or in small groups (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic invertebrates like mollusks and crustaceans (Ref. 4727). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Consumed mostly fresh, smoked, and dried salted. The flesh is of excellent quality. Because it is resistant to capture, it proliferates and competes for food with other species (Ref. 5377).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums

More information

References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
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Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

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Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5078 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18-0.43; tm=1)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High