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Alburnus alburnus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bleak
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Native range
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Alburnus alburnus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alburnus alburnus (Bleak)
Alburnus alburnus
Picture by Lorenzoni, M.


Portugal country information

Common names: Alburno, Ruivaca
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Occurrence and status confirmed by Ribeiro, F. (pers. comm.; July 2006).
National Checklist: Portugal
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007
National Database: Portuguese Freshwater Fishes

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Alburninae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Issue
Alburnus maximus (Fatio, 1882) is a valid species according to Buj et al. (2010: Ref. 85064), and Freyhof, pers. comm. (13 Dec. 2010). The corresponding species summary page will be created in the future.

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30578); max. published weight: 60.00 g (Ref. 30578)

Length at first maturity
Lm 9.9, range 9 - ? cm

Environment

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - ? m (Ref. 30578)

Climate / Range

Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 68°N - 35°N, 6°W - 60°E

Distribution

Europe and Asia: most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Maritza drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. In Anatolia, Marmara basin. Locally introduced in Spain, Portugal and Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 2 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 14 - 20; Vertebrae: 41 - 44. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the possession of the following characters: origin of anal fin below branched dorsal rays 4-5; lateral line with 45-48 + 3 scales; anal fin with 17-20½ branched rays; 16-22 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed from anus to pelvic base; lateral stripe absent in life, faint or absent in preserved specimens; and mouth slightly superior (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 40476.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits open waters of lakes and medium to large rivers. Forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters during winter. Adults occur in shoals near the surface. Larvae live in littoral zone of rivers and lakes while juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on plankton, including crustaceans (Ref. 30578) and insects (Ref. 9696). Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Excellent as bait for carnivorous fishes. May be captured using the smallest hook and a fly as bait. Its flesh is tasty (Ref. 30578). Of little interest to commercial or sport fisheries in its native range because of its small size (Ref. 1739). Scales were previously utilized in making Essence d"Orient, a coating for artificial pearls (Ref. 59043).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; bait: usually

Tools

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | BOLDSystems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
2.7   ±0.29 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; K=0.19; tmax=7; Fec=1,500)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown