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Atherina boyeri  Risso, 1810

Big-scale sand smelt
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Atherina boyeri   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Atherina boyeri (Big-scale sand smelt)
Atherina boyeri
Picture by Otel, V.


Portugal country information

Common names: Peixe-rei, Peixe-rei, Peixe-rei-do-Mediterrâneo
Occurrence: native
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Permanent fershwater resident populations in Tagus drainage (now extirpated) and Santo André lagoon (Ref. 59043).
National Checklist: Portugal
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986
National Database: Portuguese Freshwater Fishes

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes (Silversides) > Atherinidae (Silversides) > Atherininae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30578); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 59043)

Length at first maturity
Lm 5.8, range 5 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 59043); depth range 1 - ? m

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 53°N - 20°N, 18°W - 42°E

Distribution

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Spain to Nouadhibou in Mauritania and Madeira, and throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Isolated populations on coasts of England and the Netherlands (Ref. 5980). Previously, two subspecies were recognized in Russian waters: Atherina boyeri pontica (Eichwald, 1838) from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and Atherina boyeri caspia (Eichwald, 1838) from the Caspian Sea (Ref. 26334).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 7 - 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-16; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 10 - 18. Eye diameter wider than snout length (Ref. 35388).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A very euryhaline species, where adults are frequently found in brackish waters and more sporadically in freshwater (Ref. 3788), preferring still or slow flowing waters in freshwater (Ref. 59043). They are found in lower parts of rivers, estuaries, coastal lakes and sea; pelagic in lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur in great schools. They are carnivorous, feeding on small crustaceans, worms, mollusks (Ref. 5980) and fish larvae (Ref. 35388) in lakes and estuaries, and on benthos in rivers (Ref. 59043). Can usually live 1 to 2 years, rarely up to 4 years. Some populations undergo spawning migrations into estuaries. Mature individuals are fractional spawners, larger individuals spawn for a longer period. Eggs are demersal, with long hairy appendages attaching them to the substrate consisting of filamentous algae, often at depths of 2 to 6 m. Larvae are pelagic often forming schools close to the shores (Ref. 59043).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial

More information

References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5312 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.2   ±0.36 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.8; tm=1; tmax=4;)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High