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Lepidocybium flavobrunneum  (Smith, 1843)

Escolar
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Lepidocybium flavobrunneum
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Portugal country information

Common names: Escolar, Escolar-de-natura, Escolar-preto
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments:
National Checklist: Portugal
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Nakamura, I. and N.V. Parin, 1993
National Database: Portuguese Freshwater Fishes

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Gempylidae (Snake mackerels)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 200 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); common length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6181); max. published weight: 45.0 kg (Ref. 3403)

Environment

Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 200 - 1100 m (Ref. 44037)

Climate / Range

Deep-water; 50°N - 56°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 6181)

Distribution

Tropical and temperate seas of the world, but probably not occurring in the northern Indian Ocean. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Eastern Atlantic: known from 13°N off Guinea to Lobutu, Angola (Ref. 10816).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 1-2; Anal soft rays: 12 - 14; Vertebrae: 31. Body almost uniformly dark brown, becoming almost black with age. Pelvic fins well developed, with I spine and 5 soft rays (Ref. 9784). Prominent lateral keel on caudal peduncle, flanked by smaller accessory keels above and below (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs mainly over the continental slope, down to 200 m and more (Ref. 6181). Migrates upward at night (Ref. 6181). Feeds on squid, crustaceans and a wide variety of fishes (Ref. 6181). Flesh oily and may have purgative properties (Ref. 9784). Sometimes caught by tuna long-liners (Ref. 26938). Marketed frozen and as fish cakes in Japan (Ref. 9302).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.3   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm=4-5)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (85 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Medium