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Sphyrna tiburo  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bonnethead
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Sphyrna tiburo   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna tiburo (Bonnethead)
Sphyrna tiburo
Picture by Murch, A.


Philippines country information

Common names: [No common name]
Occurrence: questionable
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: No specimens available. Those reported from Navotas, Manila Bay, Luzon (Ref. 47939) and recorded in 1936-1937 collections from Zamboanga Province, Mindanao (Ref. 280) may be based on a vaguely similar hammerhead such as the young of S. mokarran (Ref. 47737). Unsubstantiated records outside the Western Hemisphere (Ref. 48449).
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Compagno, L.J.V., P.R. Last, J.D. Stevens and M.N.R. Alava, 2005
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 10.8 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 26248)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 80 - 90 cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 80 m (Ref. 244), usually 10 - 25 m (Ref. 9253)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 45°N - 36°S, 121°W - 32°W (Ref. 55302)

Distribution

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including Cuba and the Bahamas. Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico; rare in Bermuda (Ref. 26938). Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Ecuador.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Front of head semicircular in outline. No other hammerhead has front of head in semicircle. (Ref. 26938).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the continental and insular shelves, on inshore and coastal areas, over mud and sand bottoms, also on coral reefs. Often occur in shallow water including estuaries, shallow bays and over coral reefs (Ref. 9987). Spends night time hours on shallow grass flats, searching for nocturnally active invertebrate prey, moves into deeper water during the day (Ref. 27549). Feed mainly on crustaceans, also on bivalves, octopi, and small fish. Viviparous, with 6 to 9 young per litter. Size at birth about 35 to 40 cm. Not territorial. Always occurs in small groups. Considerable sexual segregation occurs. Shows diel rhythm of activity. Utilized for human consumption and processed for fishmeal.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5029 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.9   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.17-0.34; tm=3; tmax=12; Fec=3)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High