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Epinephelus bruneus  Bloch, 1793

Longtooth grouper
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Image of Epinephelus bruneus (Longtooth grouper)
Epinephelus bruneus
Picture by Chiang, S.


Philippines country information

Common names: Lapu-lapu
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: likely future use | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments:
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Yamada, U., S. Shirai, T. Irie, M. Tokimura, S. Deng, Y. Zheng, C. Li, Y.U. Kim and Y.S. Kim, 1995
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 136 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 33.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 54 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 5222)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 38°N - 18°N, 108°E - 142°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution

Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan (north to Hegura-jima Island), China (south to Hong Kong and Hainan Island), and Taiwan.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dark greyish brown; body covered with small pale grey spots forming short horizontal lines and mottled pattern; lower margin of the anal fin and lower corner of the caudal fin with white edge; juveniles pale yellowish brown, body with 6 irregular oblique dark bars containing irregular pale spots; elongate body, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, serrae at angle distinctly enlarged; inconspicuous dorsal spine on opercle; convex upper edge of operculum; small and subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye, tiny embedded scales on maxilla; absence of step on ventral edge of maxilla; 2 rows of well-developed canines on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; mid-lateral body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales on body (Ref. 089707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds (Ref. 089707). Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
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Mass conversion
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Gill area
Otoliths
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (77 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high