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Hemigymnus melapterus  (Bloch, 1791)

Blackeye thicklip
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Image of Hemigymnus melapterus (Blackeye thicklip)
Hemigymnus melapterus
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Philippines country information

Common names: Balaki, Bankilan, Banog
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Known from Sorsogon City (Ref. 58652), Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756), Calatagan, Batangas (Ref. 107852), Nasugbu (Ref. 107853), Tañon Strait (Ref. 107276), Bongo Island and Paril-Sangay Protected Seascape, Moro Gulf, Davao Gulf, Sarangani Bay and Malalag Bay (Ref. 106380), Verde Island (Ref. 107855), and Bantayan Is. in northern Cebu (Ref. 114734). Also Ref. 1602, 48613, 59110. In range Ref. 9823.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Conlu, P.V., 1986
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Labridae (Wrasses) > Corinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 37.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93095)

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 27115)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 36°S, 24°E - 138°W

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Micronesia, Samoa (Ref. 2334), and Polynesia (Ref. 9823).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 11. This species is distinguished by the following characters: gill rakers 26-29; small juveniles dark brown, green on snout and interorbital, with a slightly oblique white bar from front of dorsal fin to abdomen, and 2 narrow pale yellowish bars below soft portion of dorsal fin that fade ventrally; larger juveniles have a white bar from origin of dorsal fin, passing beneath pectoral fin onto abdomen; head and body anterior to bar greyish green, posterior to bar black; posterior caudal peduncle and caudal fin yellow, often with 1 or 2 small black spots centrally near base: small females with body posterior to a curving demarcation between origins of dorsal and anal fins blackish with a narrow dark greenish bar on each scale, grading to yellow with blue-green spots posteriorly on caudal peduncle and fin; large females dark green posterior to oblique demarcation on body, the scales rimmed in black, with a vertical green line or spot on each scale; head and anterior body light green dorsally, pale blue-green ventrally, have irregular bands on snout and above eye, and a large complex marking behind eye; body of males posterior to demarcation dark green, each scale with narrow pale blue-green and black posterior margin; head green dorsally with irregular green to blue-green bands, including a blue ring around eye; cheek and operculum pinkish white with irregular light blue lines and spots, except for a large yellowish green blotch centrally on cheek without markings; lips and ventral part of head mainly pale blue; chest and abdomen pinkish white with a light blue spot or arc on scales (Ref. 93095).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in subtidal reef flats and lagoon and seaward reefs. Juveniles occur inshore, found among branching corals while adults found in areas of mixed sand, rubble, and coral (Ref. 9710). Large adults in deeper water (Ref. 48636). Maximum length beyond 45 cm TL is unlikely, with largest measured individual at 37 cm TL (Ref, Feeds mainly on small invertebrates, especially crustaceans, polychaete worms, mollusks and brittle stars (Ref. 9823). Diet changing from primarily demersal planktonic crustaceans to hard-shelled invertebrates with growth (Ref. 37816).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

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Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.6250 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.6   ±0.45 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high