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Albula vulpes  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bonefish
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Image of Albula vulpes (Bonefish)
Albula vulpes
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Philippines country information

Common names: Bidbid, Bud-bod
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments:
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Conlu, P.V., 1986
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Albuliformes (Bonefishes) > Albulidae (Bonefishes) > Albulinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 104 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 37955)

Length at first maturity
Lm 48.8, range 21 - 36 cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 84 m (Ref. 13608), usually 1 - 15 m (Ref. 9268)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 45°N - 31°S, 159°W - 35°W (Ref. 55166)

Distribution

Worldwide in warm seas. Hawaiian species have been verified by electrophoretic analysis (Ref. 5577), hence, Albula vulpes might be further split. Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Florida, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, Antilles and Caribbean to Brazil (Ref. 26938). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). The West African form is Albula goreensis, Valenciennes, 1846.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-19; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 7 - 9; Vertebrae: 69 - 74. Branchiostegal rays 12-14 (Ref. 4639). Silvery with dusky fins; base of pectorals yellow (Ref. 3970). Body elongate and fusiform (Ref. 4832). Last ray of dorsal and anal fins not prolonged; head region naked; spot and band absent on head; margin of nasal pore not black (Ref. 13608). Bluntly conical snout extends beyond inferior mouth (Ref. 26938). Pectoral and pelvic axillary scales present; a single long scale on each side of membrane between each ray of dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 4832).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries and bays, over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 3237). Often in schools, except large individuals which are solitary (Ref. 7251). Dorsal fin may show above surface (Ref. 42064). More or less pelagic but feeds on benthic worms, crustaceans, and mollusks (Ref. 2850); that are picked from mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 27549). Tolerates oxygen poor water by inhaling air into a lung-like airbladder (Ref. 9710). Flesh is bony and not esteemed (Ref. 9268). One of the most important game fishes worldwide (Ref. 26938).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually

More information

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Predators
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5007 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.7   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.3; tm=2; tmax=20)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High