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Chitala chitala  (Hamilton, 1822)

Clown knifefish
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Chitala chitala
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Philippines country information

Common names: [No common name]
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Reported from AQUAGEM Maharlika Hi-way, Cabanatuan City as specimen for the living fish museum (Ref. 81820). A major invasive species in Laguna de Bay. The government has launched a major effort to contain knife fish infestation (Ref. 94176). Also Ref. 57864.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Central Luzon State University, 1996
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes (Bony tongues) > Notopteridae (Featherbacks or knifefishes)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 122 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832); common length : 75.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2686)

Length at first maturity
Lm 75.5  range ? - 91 cm

Environment

Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19

Climate / Range

Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)

Distribution

Asia: Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mahanadi river basins in India. No valid records from Irrawaddy, Salween or other river basins of Myanmar. Reports of Chitala chitala from Thailand and Indo-China were based on Chitala ornata and those from Malaysia and Indonesia on Chitala lopis.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 117 - 127. The only species in which subadults and adults have a series of transverse gold or silver bars on the dorsum, but this color feature is not always present (Ref. 7431). Differs from C. ornata in never having ocellated spots and from C. blanci and C. lopis in never having a black spot on the pectoral fin base (Ref. 7431).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit freshwater rivers, lakes, beels, nullahs in the plains (Ref. 41236), reservoirs, canals and ponds (Ref. 1479). Feed on aquatic insects, mollusks, shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 1479). Females lay eggs usually on stake or stump of wood, males fan them with tail, keep them aerated and silt-free, guard them against small catfish and other predators; complete give-away to fishermen; females not observed at egg posts; moderately important food fish (Ref. 2686). Spawn once a year during May to August (Ref. 6459).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Tools

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5166 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.7   ±0.59 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
High vulnerability (58 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown