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Monotaxis grandoculis  (Forsskål, 1775)

Humpnose big-eye bream
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Monotaxis grandoculis
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Philippines country information

Common names: Babaan, Batuan, Bitilya
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref: Rau, N. and A. Rau, 1980
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Known from Sibuyan, Romblon (Ref. 58652), Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756), Sarangani Bay, Bongo Island, Moro Gulf (Ref. 106380), and Bantayan Is. in northern Cebu (Ref. 114734). Also Ref. 2295, 48613.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Rau, N. and A. Rau, 1980
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 5.9 kg (Ref. 40637)

Length at first maturity
Lm 27.5, range 18 - ? cm


Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 9775)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 35°N - 30°S, 32°E - 122°W


Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and southeastern Oceania, north to Japan, south to Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. The inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled. Body is generally bluish-gray grading to whitish on ventral parts; lips are yellow to pinkish. The area around the eye is often yellow or orange. Fins are generally without distinctive markings. The membranes are clear or dusky but often reddish to yellow-orange. The base of the upper pectoral fin rays and the inner base (i.e. the body side) of the pectoral axil are black. The caudal fin usually has blackish rays contrasted against the paler membranous part of the fin. Small juveniles (often also in large 20-30 cm individuals) whitish on lower half and with three prominent black saddles separated by narrower white bars on upper half. A vertical black bar crosses the eye from above.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in sand and rubble areas near coral reefs. Solitary fish are often encountered, but large adults usually form aggregations of up to about 50 individuals (Ref. 9710). Solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal feeders (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on gastropods, ophiuroids, and echinoids. Pagurids and brachyuran crabs, polychaetes, tunicates, and holothurians are consumed in lesser quantities. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). Ciguatoxic in Marshall Is. (Ref. 171).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.7500 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high