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Lethrinus nebulosus  (Forsskål, 1775)

Spangled emperor
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Image of Lethrinus nebulosus (Spangled emperor)
Lethrinus nebulosus
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Philippines country information

Common names: Anuping, Bakoko, Bagangan
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: likely future use | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Known from Sibuyan, Romblon (Ref. 58652). Also Ref. 2295.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Broad, G., 2003
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 87.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47613); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 8.4 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 28 years (Ref. 92312)

Length at first maturity
Lm 39.4, range 41 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 75 m (Ref. 2295)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 34°N - 34°S, 25°E - 170°W

Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf and East Africa to southern Japan and Samoa. According to a genetic study (Ref. 28017), Lethrinus nebulosus and Lethrinus choerorynchus are two distinct species in Western Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Cheek without scales; 5-9 scales in supra temporal patch; inner surface of pectoral fin densely covered with scales; posterior angle of opercular fully scaled. Body color is yellowish or bronze, lighter below. Centers of many scales with a white or light blue spot. Sometimes irregular dark indistinct bars on sides and a square black blotch above pectoral fin bordering below the lateral line. Three blue streaks or series of blue spots radiate forward and ventrally from the eye. The fins are whitish or yellowish; the pelvic dusky, the edge of the dorsal fin is reddish. TL/SL relationship (cm): TL = 1.70 +1.24. Juveniles variable with blotches or stripe and changes with habitat (Ref. 48635).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coral reefs, coralline lagoons, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, flat sand bottoms, and coastal rock areas. Adults solitary or in small schools; juveniles form large schools in shallow, sheltered sandy areas, also harbors where seagrasses, algae or sponge habitats are found at various depths. Feed on echinoderms, mollusks and crustaceans, and to some extent on polychaetes and fish. The reproductive nature of spangled emperors is uncertain, although they also may be protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 27260, 55367). However, recent study classified juvenile hermaphroditism for this species wherein transition from ovary to testis occurs before ovarian maturation, hence, no true sex-reversal in the sense of protogynous hermaphroditism is observed (Ref. 107020). May have a coppery or iodine taste or smell in the Indian Ocean (Ref. 2295, 11888). It has been shown that this species can survive for long periods in salinities as low as 10 parts per thousand and therefore it is a potential estuarine aquaculture species (Ref. 2295). Utilized as a food fish.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)



Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
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Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.8   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09-0.16; tm=4-9; tmax=27)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High