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Cyprinus carpio  Linnaeus, 1758

Common carp
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Cyprinus carpio
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Philippines country information

Common names: Bongka'ong, Common carp, Karpa
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: common (usually seen) | Ref:
Importance: highly commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: commercial | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: In 1915, two thousand fry were brought from Hong Kong to Manila upon the suggestion of Alvin Seale. Most of these were placed in a pond at Dulauan, Cotabato. When the Rio Grande de Mindanao flooded, the fish escaped and established in the Pulangi and its tributaries between Dulauan and Fort Pikit. Fry were also introduced in lakes Dapao and Nunungan, Lanao in 1916 (Ref. 2929). Introduced to Lake Mainit, Mindanao (Ref. 4867, 50320, 13446, 81829);including Kalinawan River (Ref. 81829), lakes Naujan and Taal (Ref. 13446); Laguna de Bay (Ref. 80824); Lake Paoay, Ilocos Norte; Magat R, Nueva Viscaya; Lake Bato and Lake Buhi, Camarines Sur; Cagayan River, Isabela (Ref. 280); Lake Buluan (Ref. 13492); and Lake Lanao (Ref. 13446, 81887, 95183). Collected from CLSU fish pond, Nueva Ecija and Lake Taal Laurel, Batangas as a living specimen (Ref. 81820). Recorded from Candaba Swamp and Pampanga River (Ref. 109918). Museum specimens collected in 1983 from the south bay, LRS-83115 (Ref. 13460). Also Ref. 1739, 4867, 28007, 4735.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Herre, A.W.C.T., 1924
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549); common length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3561); max. published weight: 40.1 kg (Ref. 72380); max. reported age: 38 years (Ref. 72479)

Length at first maturity
Lm 34.9, range 25 - 36 cm


Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 3°C - 35°C (Ref. 12741); 60°N - 22°N, 7°E - 144°E


Europe to Asia: Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins. Introduced throughout the world. Wild stocks are only present naturally in rivers draining to the Black, Caspian and Aral Sea (Ref. 59043). A reophilic wild population in the Danube is assumed to be the origin of the European species; this population is now under threat (Ref. 13696).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-23; Anal spines: 2-3; Anal soft rays: 5 - 6; Vertebrae: 36 - 37. Diagnosed from other cyprinid species in Europe by having the following characters: 2 pairs of barbels; dorsal fin with 15-20½ branched rays; caudal fin deeply emarginate (Ref. 59043). Pharyngeal teeth 1, 1, 3:3, 1,1, robust, molar-like with crown flattened or somewhat furrowed. Scales large and thick. `Wild carp ' is generally distinguished by its less stocky build with height of body 1:3.2-4.8 in standard length. Very variable in form, proportions, squamation, development of fins, and color. Caudal fin with 3 spines and 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray bony and serrated posteriorly; 4 barbels; 17-20 branched dorsal rays; body grey to bronze (Ref. 43281). Also Ref. 3398, 3410.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit warm, deep, slow-flowing and still waters such as lowland rivers and large, well vegetated lakes (Ref. 59043). Hardy and tolerant of a wide variety of conditions but generally favor large water bodies with slow flowing or standing water and soft bottom sediments. Thrive in large turbid rivers (Ref. 1998). Most active at dusk and dawn. Both adults and juveniles feed on a variety of benthic organisms and plant material. Spawns along shores or in backwaters. Adults often undertake considerable spawning migration to suitable backwaters and flooded meadows. Larvae survive only in very warm water among shallow submerged vegetation. River regulation and hybridization with domesticated stocks, East Asian congeners and their hybrids have caused continuous decline of wild populations (Ref. 59043). Utilized fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size >200 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2ce)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest

Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.1   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.10-0.30; tm=1-3; tmax=20; Fec=36,000-2,000,000)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)