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Strongylura leiura  (Bleeker, 1850)

Banded needlefish
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Native range | Year 2100
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Strongylura leiura  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Strongylura leiura (Banded needlefish)
Strongylura leiura
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Philippines country information

Common names: Balitut, Balo, Balo
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Known in Calamianes Islands, northern Palawan (Ref. 48613) and from Taal Anchorage, Luzon (type locality of Rhaphiobelone dammermani) (Ref. 26282). Also Ref. 5317.
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Rau, N. and A. Rau, 1980
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Belonidae (Needlefishes)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3678); common length : 35.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682)

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 86942)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 30°N - 40°S, 20°E - 168°E

Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and Tanzania to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 3130) east to Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and southeast Asia to New Guinea, Australia, and the Philippines. Reported from southern China (Ref. 5317). The Australian population is regarded as subspecies Strongylura leiura ferox by Parin (1967) (Ref. 1602).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-21; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 23 - 25. Laterally compressed; origin of dorsal fin over 7th-10th ray of anal fin; dorsal fin rays 17-21; anal fin rays 23-25; caudal peduncle without lateral keels; caudal fin emarginate; predorsal scales moderately small, 130-180 (Ref. 9682). Caudal fin sub truncate; a black bar on cheek between opercle and preopercle; greenish dorsally, grading to silvery white ventrally.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 5213). Larvae and early juveniles are found in mangroves (Ref. 43081). Feed mainly on small fishes (Ref. 3130) and crustaceans (Ref. 43081). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9682).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Harmless



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Tools

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Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5001 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.9   ±0.64 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High