Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9682); max. published weight: 6.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 13 m (Ref. 58302)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959), preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 21°N - 1°N
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 5317) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) to French Polynesia (Ref. 6784), north to Japan (Ref. 559), south to New South Wales, Australia (Ref. 33390). Replaced by Tylosurus crocodilus fodiator in the eastern Pacific. Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Fernando Poo, Cameroon, Liberia, and Ascension Island (Ref. 5757); from Senegal and Guinea (Ref. 28587); and Cape Verde (Ref. 27000). Recorded from the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 83387).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 18 - 22;
Vertebrae: 80 - 86. Diagnosis: body elongate; upper and lower jaws extremely long, forming a stout beak armed with very sharp teeth; gill rakers absent (Ref. 57228, 90102). Nostrils in depression before eyes (nasal pit); pelvic fins abdominal; 21-23 dorsal-fin rays; anal fin long, 5.5-8.0 times in body length; small, black lateral keel on either sides of caudal peduncle; caudal fin deeply forked (Ref. 57228).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5078 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.4 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100)