Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 1,520 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); 980.0 cm TL (female); common length : 700 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077); max. published weight: 4.0 t (Ref. 4645)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 500 - 980 cm
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 26346), usually 0 - ? m (Ref. 55197)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 6°C - 24°C (Ref. 88171), preferred 17°C (Ref. 107945); 75°N - 58°S, 112°E - 42°E (Ref. 84930)
Cosmopolitan, frequent in cold to warm temperate waters; rare in equatorial waters (Ref. 48844). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139). At risk of extinction by overfishing because of low to very low productivity (Ref. 36717). Appendix II (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Appendix I and II of the Bonn Convention (2009). International trade restricted (CITES Appendix II, since 28.5.2003).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 0. Distinguished from all other sharks by the enormous gill slits practically encircling the head; dermal denticle gill rakers; pointed snout; huge, sub terminal mouth with minute hooked teeth; caudal peduncle with strong lateral keels, and lunate caudal fin. Body covered with placoid scales. Blackish to grey-brown, grey, or blue-grey, often with irregular white blotches under the head and abdomen (Ref. 43278). Also Ref. 309, 5983.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.2 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1-2; Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717))
Very high vulnerability (86 of 100)