Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 275 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27169); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9253); max. published weight: 122.8 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 244)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 120 - 194 cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 89972), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 55184)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 45°N - 38°S, 166°W - 171°E (Ref. 55184)
Cosmopolitan. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Brazil (Ref. 26340). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madeira, the Canary Islands, and Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea, Madagascar and South Africa to China, Australia, Tahiti, Marquesas, and Hawaii. Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 0. A stout shark with a long, narrow, pointed snout, long gill slits and erect, narrow-cusped upper teeth; first dorsal fin high; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Dark grey, ashy blue or dusky bronze on back, belly white or yellowish white; a dark band extending rearward along each side to about over origin of pelvic fin; tips of pelvic fins with a persistent black spot; tips of dorsal fins, pectoral fins, anal, and lower lobe of caudal fin usually black or dusky in young individuals, fading with growth (Ref. 9997).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.4 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.054; K=0.27; tm=3-8; tmax=18; Fec=1-10)
High vulnerability (55 of 100)