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Pastinachus sephen  (Forsskål, 1775)

Cowtail stingray
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Image of Pastinachus sephen (Cowtail stingray)
Pastinachus sephen
Picture by Banks, I.


Australia country information

Common names: Banana-tail ray, Cowtail ray, Cowtail stingray
Occurrence: native
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Occurs in northern Australia, from Shark Bay, Western Australia to the Clarence River, New South Wales (Ref. 7300). Also Ref. 559, 4832.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 183 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm

Environment

Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 6871)

Climate / Range

Tropical, preferred ?; 32°N - 37°S, 36°E - 168°E

Distribution

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf and South Africa to Micronesia, north to Japan, south to Melanesia and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Venomous



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
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References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
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Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Otoliths
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5312 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.7   ±0.60 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Low