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Carcharodon carcharias  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Great white shark
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Carcharodon carcharias
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Australia country information

Common names: Great white shark, White death, White pointer
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: protected | Ref: Compagno, L.J.V., 1998
Uses: no uses
Comments: Probably throughout Australia but more common in southern Australia, from southern Queensland to North West Cape in Western Australia (Ref. 6871). Protected in much of Australia (Ref. 26346). Also Ref. 247, 2334, 7300, 13574, 26938.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994
National Database:

Classification / Names

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Lamnidae (Mackerel sharks or white shark)
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 541 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10635); 594.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 0.00 g; max. reported age: 36 years (Ref. 31395)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 450 - 500 cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1200 m (Ref. 106604), usually 0 - 250 m (Ref. 55270)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 66°N - 58°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution

Cosmopolitan, mostly amphitemperate. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Argentina; also north Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba and Lesser Antilles (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: France to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Indian Ocean: Seychelles, South Africa; also Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 33390). Western Pacific: Siberia to New Zealand and the Marshall Islands; also south Australia (Ref. 26938). Central Pacific: Hawaii. Eastern Pacific: Alaska to Chile. International trade cooperation, Australia (CITES Appendix III, since 28.5.2003; CMS Appendix I and II).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 0. A huge, spindle-shaped shark with conspicuous black eyes, a blunt, conical snout and large, triangular, saw-edged teeth (Ref. 5578). First dorsal-fin origin usually over the pectoral-fin inner margins (Ref. 43278, 6871). Caudal fin crescentic (Ref. 247). Lead-grey to brown or black above, lighter on sides, and abruptly white below (Ref. 6851). Black spot at rear pectoral fin base (Ref. 6851).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Primarily a coastal and offshore inhabitant of continental and insular shelves, but may also occur off oceanic islands far from land (Ref. 247, 43278, 58302). Often close inshore to the surf line and even penetrates shallow bays (Ref. 247). Maximum depth of 700 fathoms (or 1280 m) reported by Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948 is erroneous (Francis et al., 2012 in Ref. 106604). Pelagic, capable of migration across oceanic regions (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary or in pairs but can be found in feeding aggregations of 10 or more; does not form schools (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fishes, sharks, rays, seals, dolphins and porpoises, sea birds, carrion, squid, octopi and crabs (Ref. 5578) and whales (Ref. 32140). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 43278, 50449). Number of young born per litter, 7 (Ref. 31395) to 14 (Ref. 26346). Reported by some experts to attack humans which they mistake for their normal prey (Ref. 47). Most attacks occur in estuaries. Caught by big-game anglers and line boats for its jaws (Ref. 5578). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690). Flesh is utilized fresh, dried-salted, and smoked for human consumption, the skin for leather, liver for oil, carcass for fishmeal, fins for shark-fin soup, and teeth and jaws for decorations (Ref. 13574). Maximum total length is leading to much speculation and some measurements are found to be doubtful. Possibly to 6.4 m or more in length (Ref. 43278), considered the world's largest predator with a broad prey spectrum. The record of 10.98 m is incorrect (Ref. 13574). Maximum total length for male from Ref. 91029. Sometimes considered the most dangerous shark in the world (Ref. 26938).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2cd+3cd)

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 247)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes

More information

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 1.0313 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.06; tm=8-12; tmax=36; Fec=7)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Very high vulnerability (86 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Low