Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 60.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 122 m (Ref. 58302), usually 4 - 46 m (Ref. 27115)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115), preferred ?; 29°N - 36°S, 26°E - 137°W (Ref. 57250)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesas and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Excluding Oman and Persian Gulf (Ref. 86689). Eastern Central Pacific: Galápagos Islands.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 27 - 30. Adults bluish grey to olivaceous brown in color, commonly pale anteriorly and on cheek and throat; short irregular lines on sides of body; diagonal lines on horn; lip edges blue (Ref. 3145). Subadults with dark spots on head and body (Ref. 3145). Juveniles lack the prominent horn of adults (Ref. 1602).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.2 ±0.15 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.402; Tmax=25)
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)