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Synanceia verrucosa  Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Stonefish
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Image of Synanceia verrucosa (Stonefish)
Synanceia verrucosa
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Australia country information

Common names: Reef stonefish
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Ranges south to Queensland at 23°30'S (Ref. 33390); Timor Sea reefs (Ref. 90102).. Also Ref. 4537.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen, 2006
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Synanceiinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3503); common length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.4 kg (Ref. 11441)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 37816)

Climate / Range

Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 30°S, 30°E - 139°W

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Queensland, Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 12 - 14; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-7; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 5 - 6. Colors matching surroundings and extremely well-camouflaged (Ref. 48635). Pelvic and anal fins spines are similarly developed. 12-14 stout grooved spines, each with a large venom sack at its base (Ref. 37816).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Most widespread stonefish (Ref. 4313). Found on sandy or rubble areas of reef flats and shallow lagoons and in small pools during low tide well camouflaged among the substrate and sometimes even covered with algae (Ref. 5213, 5503). Solitary species (Ref. 37816). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. The dorsal fin has 2 grooves serving as seringes of venom; their stings are excruciatingly painful and can occasionally be fatal. A serum exists which is effective if applied immediately after the infliction. World's most venomous fish (Ref. 37816). Uncommon in markets. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Also Ref. 57406.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5312 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.2   ±0.73 se; Based on food items.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
High vulnerability (58 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown