Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4313)
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 135 m (Ref. 90102), usually 5 - 20 m (Ref. 58302)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 30°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Galapagos Islands, north to Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to Australia and the Tuamoto Islands.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 5 - 6. Tan to reddish or brown in color (Ref. 4313). Has prickly papillae instead of scales. Dorsal fin high, 3rd or 4th spine longest; suborbital ridge without spines or with lump at head of ridge; preopercle with 2 indistinct spines only; body extremely compressed; soft dorsal fin attached to the caudal fin; coloration is variable, from nearly all yellow to red, brown or nearly black and variously mottled with darker pigment (Ref. 10482).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.1 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100)