Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9768)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 6 - 300 m (Ref. 1602)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 23°S, 36°E - 140°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Southeast Asia and the Marquesan and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 9. Body elongate and sub cylindrical with small cycloid scales; head long and pointed. Mouth large and horizontal, the tip of the lower jaw protruding; intermaxilla non-protractile. Preoperculum broadly rounded. Lower limb of the first fill arch with spiny tubercles. First dorsal fin origin opposite or before the pectoral tip, the first spine shorter than the second. Color is generally blackish above and silvery below.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.4 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)