Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Length at first maturity
Lm 15.0  range ? - ? cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 5213)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 33°S, 30°E - 130°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5490) and east to the Hawaiian, Line, and Ducie islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Perth, New South Wales, Lord Howe Island and Rapa Island.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 9. Initial phase very variable in coloration. Small individuals may be uniformly dark brown to light gray with or without the dark-centered light area on the caudal peduncle; large individuals may have a series of irregular rows of small light spots posteriorly or have the dark-centered light area on the caudal peduncle. The terminal phase is also variable with or without a large tan area on the side or on the caudal peduncle. Rounded snout (Ref. 48636).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.6 ±0.29 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=9; k >0.3)
Low vulnerability (19 of 100)