Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 147 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 58048)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 100 - ? cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 217 m (Ref. 86942)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 31°N - 31°S, 20°W - 177°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and coast of East Africa to the Marshall Islands and Fiji, south to northern Australia (Ref. 2334). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal, Guinea, and Côte d'Ivoire (Ref. 4438).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Diagnosis: A heavily armored stingray lacking a venomous barb; young with large, flat denticles on upper surface, and large juveniles and adults with additional sharp conical thorns and small, pointed denticles (Ref. 5578).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 2334)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.7500 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.5 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100)
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)