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Epinephelus maculatus  (Bloch, 1790)

Highfin grouper
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Epinephelus maculatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus maculatus (Highfin grouper)
Epinephelus maculatus
Picture by Kochzius, M.


Australia country information

Common names: Blackfin cod, Brown-spotted rock-cod, Highfin grouper
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Museum: Queensland, GBR, AMS I.19600-001, I.20550-001. Lord Howe Is., BPBM 14904. CSIRO CA893, from North West Cape to Darwin (Ref. 5978). Reported from the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Ref. 75154); eastern and Northwest Shelf (Ref 90102). Also Ref. 1602, 4787, 5222, 7300, 89707.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Johnson, J.W., 1999
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 60.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5525)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 35 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 100 m (Ref. 37816)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 29°N - 34°S, 96°E - 170°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution

Pacific Ocean: Cocos-Keeling Islands to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to southeastern Australia and Lord Howe Island (Ref. 37816).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Brown spots evenly distributed and packed into hexagonal shapes only on adults which are generally larger (>25 to 45 cm); front portion of spinous dorsal fin about 50% taller than on other species at all sizes (Ref. 37816); small juveniles black with white blotches, becoming more spotted with age (Ref. 48635); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body; auxiliary scales on body; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.0 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; preopercle with shallow indentation just above the enlarged serrae at angle; straight or slightly convex upper edge of operculum, posterior and anterior nostrils subequal; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of eye, ventral edge with blunt hook-like process distally in fish larger than 35 cm SL; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Juveniles are found in shallow coral rubble, adults in isolated coral heads of lagoon and seaward reefs to depths of 82 m. Feeds mainly on sand-dwelling fishes and crustaceans, sometimes on octopuses. In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). May be ciguatoxic in certain areas (Ref. 37816). Solitary, often seen on open sand and base of reefs (Ref 90102).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning



Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

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Internet sources

BHL | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
4.0   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high