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Epinephelus fasciatus  (Forsskål, 1775)

Blacktip grouper
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Image of Epinephelus fasciatus (Blacktip grouper)
Epinephelus fasciatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Australia country information

Common names: Blacktip grouper, Blacktip rockcod, Blacktip rockcod
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: minor commercial | Ref: Johannes, R.E. and J.W. MacFarlane, 1991
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Including the Torres Strait Islands (Ref. 13465). Also reported from Lord Howe I. (Ref. 8879, 75154) and from the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Ref. 75154). Museum: W. Australia, NTM S.10576-002; BPBM 17383; BMNH 1961.8.3.31. Northern Territory, NTM S.11418-002. Queensland, AMS I.19453-030. New South Wales, AMS I.16652-001. Coral Sea, AMS I.25110. Also Ref. 4787, 5222, 33390, 37816, 090102, 89707.
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Johnson, J.W., 1999
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 30874)

Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 16 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 160 m (Ref. 5222), usually 20 - 45 m (Ref. 5222)

Climate / Range

Tropical, preferred 28°C (Ref. 107945); 36°N - 35°S, 22°E - 124°W

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and eastward to the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan and Korea, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), southern Queensland (Australia) and Lord Howe Island.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by having color ranging from pale greenish grey to pale reddish yellow or pinkish; with 5-6 dark bars of variable intensity; top of head reddish brown; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally above lateral line and on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with numerous auxiliary scales; greatest body depth 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 2.0-2.4 in head length (Ref. 90102); characterized further by having flat interorbital area, convex dorsal head profile; snout length contained 4.3-5.1 times in HL; rounded preopercle, finely serrate rear edge, with lower most serrae slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum straight; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches to below rear third of eye or a little past eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Common in outer reef slopes at depths below 15 m, also occurs in protected bays and lagoons as shallow as 4 m. May also be found down to a depth of 160 m. At Madagascar it feeds night and day on brachyuran crabs, fishes, shrimps, and galatheid crabs (Ref. 6774). In Kenyan waters it feeds on crabs, stomatopods, fishes, ophiuroids, and octopus (Ref. 6448). In the Red Sea, mostly fishes and some crustaceans (mainly crabs) are consumed (Ref. 6699).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial

More information

Common names
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Predators
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Morphometrics
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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.7   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.16)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
High