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Epinephelus merra  Bloch, 1793

Honeycomb grouper
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Image of Epinephelus merra (Honeycomb grouper)
Epinephelus merra
Picture by Randall, J.E.


Australia country information

Common names: Birdwire rockcod, Black-spotted rock-cod, Common birdwire rockcod
Occurrence: native
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: minor commercial | Ref: Johannes, R.E. and J.W. MacFarlane, 1991
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: live export: yes;
Comments: Including the Torres Strait Islands (Ref. 13465) and the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands (Ref. 75154). Museum: AMS I. 19456-044, I. 19473-116, I.22631-002, IB.7705; ANSP 119944. Queensland, AMS I.20793-017. New South Wales, NMNZ P.14654. Western Australia, Rowley Shoals, AMS I.22819-005. Lord Howe Is., BPBM 14827. Also Ref. 4787, 5222, 33390, 37816, 090102. Also from Lord Howe Island (Ref. 89707).
National Checklist:
Country Information: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Hoese, D.F., D.J. Bray, J.R. Paxton and G.R. Allen, 2006
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Common names from other countries

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)

Length at first maturity
Lm 11.0, range 19 - ? cm

Environment

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 9710), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 5222)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 35°N - 35°S, 28°E - 129°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution

Indo-Pacific: South Africa to French Polynesia. Not known from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, nor Asian mainland.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. A series of about five darker diagonal bands, each two to five hexagons wide, superimposed on sides and radiating from eye; hexagons on sides may coalesce into short rows (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, on thorax and lower abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.7-2.2 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; flat interorbital area, dorsal head profile convex; rounded or subangular preopercle, serrae at angle enlarged; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils or posterior nostrils larger; maxilla reaches past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw, inner teeth about twice length of outer teeth; pyloric caeca 8 (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Very common in shallow lagoon and semi-protected seaward reefs. Juveniles are common in thickets of staghorn Acropora corals. Feed on crustaceans and fishes. Increase of piscivory with age is observed in this species. Cultured under experimental conditions in the Philippines (Ref. 4757). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Neither opercular spine nor anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Current information in the table (dangerous fish) do not match; needs verification. Solitary (Ref 90102).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)



Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
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Ciguatera
Speed
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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | BHL | BOLDSystems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record | Fishtrace

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.8   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.3-0.6)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Very high