Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 10 - 14 cm
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 48637), usually 2 - 25 m (Ref. 27115)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115), preferred ?; 31°N - 34°S, 3°E - 123°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea south to Transkei, South Africa (Ref. 3145) and east to the Hawaiian and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to the southern Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia, and Rapa (Austral Islands).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 22 - 24. Brown in color when preserved; with or without fine bluish gray longitudinal lines on body; pale pectoral fins with upper edge narrowly black; pelvic fins brown. Lips blackish brown; median upper teeth tend to be pointed. Dorsal fin base with a prominent black spot larger than 1/2 eye diameter; a smaller spot on base of anal fin. Groove of caudal spine encircled with a narrow black margin. Gill rakers on anterior row:20-24; on posterior row:18-23.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=1.00-1.72; tm=2)
Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100)