Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3478); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 240)
Length at first maturity
Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 37816)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 38°N - 35°S, 20°E - 169°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, southern Korea, and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and Lord Howe Island. Palau and Yap in Micronesia (Ref. 1602). Sometimes enters freshwaters of East Africa (Lake Malawi) and Madagascar (Ref. 3879).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 58 - 82. This species has the dorsal and anal fins continuous with caudal fin; with 4 pairs of mouth barbels; and a single highly venomous serrate spine at the beginning of the first dorsal and each of the pectoral fins (Ref. 1602).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5020 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.6 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.44-0.45; tm=1-3; tmax=7)
Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100)