Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 200 m (Ref. 5951), usually 2 - 35 m (Ref. 40849)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred ?; 37°N - 39°S, 8°E - 55°W (Ref. 55210)
Circumtropical in distribution. Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951), Florida, USA and the Bahamas to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: 30°N to 23°S (Ref. 6951); also South Africa (Ref. 4423). Western Indian Ocean: southern Red Sea to Madagascar, Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 53568). Pacific Ocean: southern Japan south to Lord Howe Island and east to the Hawaiian and Easter islands (Ref. 37816). Also from southern California, USA to Colombia (Ref. 11482) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 13 - 15. Pelagic juveniles with spots, particularly prominent on belly; adults with dark blotches across back and spots between the blotches; fins without spots (Ref. 4423). 14 to 16 spines in an approximate row between snout and origin of dorsal fin; with a large brown bar above and below each eye; a broad transverse brown bar on occipital region of head (Ref. 13442).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5313 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.9 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100)