Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 90102), usually 2 - 20 m (Ref. 27115)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115), preferred ?; 30°N - 20°S
Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Andaman Islands, Thailand, Viet Nam, southern China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Australia, New Guinea, Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Records for the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands could be based on strays (Ref. 9813).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 13. Body bronze above, white on belly and thorax; iris light brown; pectoral fins hyaline, pelvic fins white. Slender and pungent dorsal spines; anal spines stout. Preopercular angle 78°-92°. Strong scales cover cheeks. Midline of thorax scaled but not pelvic ridges. Broad-based triangular flap of anterior nostril reaching half way to posterior nostril in juveniles, reducing to a small crescent with age.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.4 ±0.08 se; Based on food items.
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100)