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Gambusia holbrooki  Girard, 1859

Eastern mosquitofish
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Gambusia holbrooki
Picture by Delgado Saez, J.A.


Australia country information

Common names: Bore-drain fish, Eastern gambusia, Gambies
Occurrence: introduced
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: abundant (always seen in some numbers) | Ref:
Importance: of no interest | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: restricted | Ref: Native Fish Australia, 2003
Uses: no uses
Comments: Recorded throughout Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, coastal drainages of Queensland and parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory (Ref. 44894). Probably introduced to Australia during the 1920s, firstly as aquarium pets, but were soon released widely into native waters to control mosquito populations. Partly responsible for the decline of several endemic species. Also attacks the eggs and fry of important sports fishes. Considered a pest species (Ref. 12257). Known from lower Burdekin River (Ref. 40171). It is illegal to hold or translocate the fish (Ref. 48666).
National Checklist:
Country Information: httpss://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
National Fisheries Authority: https://www.csiro.au/
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: McKay, R.J., 1989
National Database:

Classification / Names

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL

Main reference

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 4.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59105); 8.0 cm TL (female)

Environment

Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.8; dH range: ? - 40; potamodromous (Ref. 51243)

Climate / Range

Subtropical; 15°C - 35°C (Ref. 13371), preferred ?; 40°N - 31°N, 89°W - 74°W

Distribution

North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Introduced to many countries for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217). Established throughout southern Europe; introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries (Ref. 59043).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Short description

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 9

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in standing to slow-flowing water, mostly in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of steams (Ref. 5723), typically seen shoaling at the edges (Ref. 44894). They also frequent brackish water (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on small terrestrial insects usually in the drift and amongst aquatic plants, actively selecting very small prey (Ref. 6154). Also observed to take in mosquito larvae (Ref. 41168). Introduced worldwide. Introductions to Europe have seriously threatened many endemic species (Ref. 59043). It is now widely accepted that their effect has been minimal and even may have exacerbated the problem due to their voracious appetite for natural invertebrate predators of mosquito larvae (Ref. 44894).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Potential pest (Ref. 12257)



Human uses

Aquarium: commercial

More information

Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805)
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278)
3.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278)
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<1; multiple spawning per year)

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153)
Low vulnerability (24 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown