Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5578)
Length at first maturity
Lm 27.6, range 12 - 46.5 cm
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 170 m (Ref. 89055), usually ? - 90 m (Ref. 9840)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 33°N - 33°S, 28°E - 154°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea (Ref. 9840) and East Africa to Samoa (Ref. 592) and Tonga (Ref. 53797), north to Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 9840). Represented by multiple color morphs in the Indo-Pacific which may be different species (Ref. 9840).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 0. Reddish brown with blue centered bright ocelli and scattered black spots dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 3263). Snout very short and broadly angular; disc angular; tail as long as body with conspicuous black and white rings, and with a short upper caudal finfold but a longer lower one ending well behind tail tip; disc without thorns; usually one sting on tail (Ref. 5578).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5312 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
3.3 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1-3)
Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100)