Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9813)
Length at first maturity
Lm 11.6, range 12 - ? cm
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 9813)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N - 35°S, 49°E - 174°W
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Cambodia, Viet Nam, south China, Taiwan and Western Australia. Also known from Ryukyu Islands; Palau and Yap in Micronesia (Ref. 1602) and Melanesia (Ref. 712).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 9;
Vertebrae: 23. Body silvery gray above, silvery below; a touch of olive green on nape and upper surface of head; fright pattern mottled with pale cream and dark brown; usually fish display a dark patch just below origin of lateral line. Preopercular angle 89°-96°; cheeks appear to be scaleless but sometimes with few to many, fine, embedded scales on lower 2/3; midline of thorax scaleless between pelvic ridges. Margin of anterior nostril encircled by a low flange with the flap extending towards posterior flap; flap shortens with increasing size. Closely resembles S. fuscescens but differs by its slightly more pointed snout and longer pectoral fins (1.1-1.3 in HL vs. 1.4-1.5 in S. fuscescens) (Ref. 1602). Color pattern is similar to that of S. argenteus and S. fuscescens.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 0.5000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
2.8 ±0.31 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=1.5-2.0; tm=1; tmax=7.8)
Low vulnerability (15 of 100)